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APA Style Citation Examples: In text

In text/parenthetical

  • When There is no author in APA format, the title moves to the first position of the references entry.

Example:

All 33 Chile miners freed in flawless rescue. (2010, October 13). Retrieved from http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/39625809/ns/world_news-americas/  

  • To cite in text use the first few words of the reference list entry (usually the title) and the year. Use double quotation marks around the title or abbreviated title.

      IN TEXT

      ("All 33 Chile Miners," 2010).

One author:

  • In 2015, Mardis has noted that Web Usability Studies are commonly conducted in libraries (p. 5).
  • Mardis has noted that Web Usability Studies are commonly conducted in libraries (2015, p. 5).
  • Mardis (2015) has noted that Web Usability Studies are commonly conducted in libraries (p. 5).

Two authors:

  • Mardis and Johnson argue that libraries should adapt rapidly to change (2014, para. 5)

Three to five authors (cite all authors the first time the reference occurs; in subsequent citation(s), include the surname of the first author followed by et al.):

  • First citation:
    • Baudino, Mardis, and Johnson (2014) also highlight the importance of the issue (p. 5).
  • Subsequent citation(s):
    • Baudino et al. (2014) highlighted another important issue (p. 6).

Six or more authors (include the surname of the first author followed by et al.):

  • Apparently, Mardis et al. (2013) agree entirely with this point (para. 7).

If both authors have the same surname, include the first author's initials in all text citations, even if the year of publication differs (p. 176, section 6.14):

  • (J. Smith & Baudino, 2005; T. A. Smith & Brady, 2008)

If both authors have the same surname and first initial, provide the authors' full name:

  • (Lori Mardis, 2015)

One author:

  • Web Usability Studies are commonly conducted in libraries (Mardis, 2014, p. 5).

Two authors (cite both author names in every reference):

  • Other authors also agreed that libraries should adapt rapidly to change (Mardis & Johnson, 2014, p. 6).

Three to five authors (cite all authors the first time the reference occurs; in subsequent citation(s), include the surname of the first author followed by et al.):

  • First citation:
    • This is an important issue highlighted by additional authors (Baudino, Johnson, & Mardis, 2013, para. 5).
  • Subsequent citation(s):
    • The other important issues were also highlighted (Baudino et al., 2013, para. 6).

Six or more authors (include the surname of the first author followed by et al.):

  • Apparently, other authors agree entirely with this point (Mardis et al., 2014, p. 8).

 

 

When multiple studies support an argument, include multiple citations inside the same set of parentheses.  Within the parentheses, alphabetize the studies as they appear in the reference list and separate with semicolons.  In running text, address studies in whatever order is wished. 

  • Fluency studies for third grade students have produced mixed results (Baudino & Wyatt, 2013, p. 3; Brady, 2010, para. 5; Mardis, Drew, & Johnson, 2012, p. 30).
  • Mardis, Drew, and Johnson (2012) reported an increase in fluency among third grade students, while Brady (2010) reported a decrease. Baudino and Wyatt (2013) found no significant differences in reading fluency. 
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Note

Consult the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 6th ed., for more examples of citing references in text (page 174-179, beginning with section 6.11)

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