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APA Style Citation Examples: Unpublished

Unpublished examples

Note: As stated in section 6.20, page 179 of the 6th edition of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, personal communications include letters, memos, some electronic communications, personal interviews, and telephone conversations. Because personal communications do not have "recoverable data," they are not included in the reference list and cited in text only. Give the surname and first initials of the communicator (the person being interviewed or speaking in the communication) and an exact date. If the name of the communicator is given in the text, include the exact date in the in text citation according to the first example below.  Use the personal communication in text example below to also cite notes you took during a lecture or class handouts that are not posted elsewhere (e.g., the web). 

 

PERSONAL COMMUNICATION

IN TEXT 

(Communicator, personal communication, Date of communication).

Lori Mardis (personal communication, July 29, 2016) reported that the library's guides underwent usability testing.

(Mardis, L. A., personal communication, July 29, 2016).

(Mardis, L. A., class handouts, August 1, 2016).

REFERENCE LIST

(For more examples look on page 210 in the 6th edition)

[ Example ]

Goldberg, I. K. (2003).  Screening for Bipolar Spectrum Disorders  [Measurement instrument]. Retrieved from http://psychiatryassociatespc.com/doc/Goldberg's_bipolar_screening_scale.pdf

     IN TEXT 

In this study, Goldberg's (2003) Screening for Bipolar Spectrum Disorders was used to identify whether individuals were most likely suffering from major (unipolar) depression.  

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