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APA Style Examples: Unpublished

Find how to cite a web page, journal, book, eBook, textbook, magazine, newspaper, video, DVD, TV show, Twitter, Tweet, Instagram, Facebook, or blog post. Find how to format in-text/parenthetical citations, papers or title pages and cite when no author.

Unpublished examples

Note: As stated in section 8.9, page 260 of the 7th edition of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, personal communications include emails, text messages, online chats or direct messages, personal interviews, telephone conversations, live speeches, unrecorded classroom lectures, memos, letters, messages from nonarchived discussion groups or online bulletin boards. Because personal communications do not have "recoverable data," they are not included in the reference list and cited in text only. Give the initial(s) and surname of the communicator (the person being interviewed or speaking in the communication) and an exact date. If the name of the communicator is given in the text, include the exact date in the in text citation according to the first example below.  Use the personal communication in text example below to also cite notes you took during a lecture or class handouts that are not posted elsewhere (e.g., the web). 

 

PERSONAL COMMUNICATION

IN TEXT 

(Communicator, personal communication, Date of communication).

L. Mardis (personal communication, July 29, 2019) reported that the library's guides underwent usability testing.

(L. A. Mardis, personal communication, January 22, 2020).

(L. A. Mardis, class handouts, January 21, 2020).

 

Although APA states that personal communications only be included in text, some professors require a citation to appear in the reference list.  If this is a requirement, follow the interview example below:

 

REFERENCE LIST

[ APA Citation Example for an Interview ]

Mardis, L. A. (2018, October 19). Social media success in academic libraries [Interview]. Maryville, MO: Northwest

Missouri State University.

(For more examples, see p. 340 of the 7th edition)

REFERENCE LIST

 

[ APA Citing Example - Test ]

 

Goldberg, I. K. (2003).  Screening for Bipolar Spectrum Disorders  [Measurement instrument]. http://psychiatryassociatespc.com/doc/Goldberg's_bipolar_screening_scale.pdf

 

     IN TEXT 

In this study, Goldberg's (2003) Screening for Bipolar Spectrum Disorders was used to identify whether individuals were most likely suffering from major (unipolar) depression.  

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