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APA Style Citation Examples: Unpublished

Find how to cite a web page, journal, book, eBook, textbook, magazine, newspaper, video, DVD, TV show, Twitter, Tweet, Instagram, Facebook, or blog post. Find how to format in-text/parenthetical citations, papers or title pages and cite when no author.

Unpublished examples

Note: As stated in section 6.20, page 179 of the 6th edition of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, personal communications include letters, memos, some electronic communications, personal interviews, and telephone conversations. Because personal communications do not have "recoverable data," they are not included in the reference list and cited in text only. Give the surname and first initials of the communicator (the person being interviewed or speaking in the communication) and an exact date. If the name of the communicator is given in the text, include the exact date in the in text citation according to the first example below.  Use the personal communication in text example below to also cite notes you took during a lecture or class handouts that are not posted elsewhere (e.g., the web). 




(Communicator, personal communication, Date of communication).

Lori Mardis (personal communication, July 29, 2016) reported that the library's guides underwent usability testing.

(Mardis, L. A., personal communication, July 29, 2016).

(Mardis, L. A., class handouts, August 1, 2016).


Although APA states that personal communications only be included in text, some professors require a citation to appear in the reference list.  If this is a requirement, follow the interview example below:



[ APA Citation Example for an Interview ]

Mardis, L. A. (2018, October 19). Social media success in academic libraries [Interview]. Maryville, MO: Northwest

Missouri State University.


(For more examples, see p. 210 in the 6th edition)

[ Example ]

Goldberg, I. K. (2003).  Screening for Bipolar Spectrum Disorders  [Measurement instrument]. Retrieved from's_bipolar_screening_scale.pdf


     IN TEXT 

In this study, Goldberg's (2003) Screening for Bipolar Spectrum Disorders was used to identify whether individuals were most likely suffering from major (unipolar) depression.  

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