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Scientific Style (CSE) Citation Examples: In text


1 author: (Smith 2018)

2 authors: authors’ last names are separated by “and” followed by the year.

EXAMPLE: (Rieseberg and Soltis, 1991)

3 or more authors: list only the first author’s last name, followed by “et al.” and the year.

EXAMPLE: (Tsutsui et al. 2009)

Multiple works by the same author(s) in different years

Jackson's studies of the AIDS virus (1985, 1986) have shown that. . .

If both authors have the same surname, add their initials

. . .but later studies (Mardis KL and Mardis LA 2012) established that. . .

Using multiple in-text references at the same point

Provide in chronologic sequence from earliest to latest, separated by semicolons - sequence by month those published in same year or, if this information isn't available, alphabetically by author names

. . .the main proponents (Mardis and Johnson 1972; Mardis and Wyatt 1972; Baudino F 1978; Baudino K 1978; Park et al. 1980; Ury et al. 1981; Zupa 1985) concluded that. . .

Organization as author: (American Dietetic Association 2016)

No author? Use title and date.

Unidentifiable authorship,, p. 553

No author? Use title followed by date.

Date cannot be determined: use [date unknown],, p. 554

Use [date unknown].

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  • Cite sources as close as possible to the information they support.
  • Put an in-text citation for an entire sentence before the period


[ example ]

More examples

One Author

Two Authors

Three to Ten Authors

More Than Ten Authors

Multiple Works by the Same Author

Authors with Same Last Name

Last name and publication year in parentheses.

Last names of both authors and publication year in parentheses.

List all authors in the end reference. List only the first followed by “et al.” in the in-text reference.

List the first ten in the end reference followed by “et al.”

List the author’s last name and the years of the multiple works’ publications (separated by a comma).

Distinguish the authors’ names by including their first and middle initial as well.

Web Usability Studies are commonly conducted in libraries (Meldrem 2013) that have a strong internet presence.

Other authors also agreed that libraries should adapt rapidly to change (Meldrem and Johnson 2012).

This is an important issue highlighted by additional authors (Mardis et al. 2014).

Apparently, other authors agree entirely with this point (Mardis et al. 2014).

Jackson’s studies of the AIDS virus (Jackson 1985, 1986) have shown that…

…but later studies (Mardis KL and Mardis LA 2012) established that…

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