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Foundational Domain in Strategic Communication: APA

APA Style video*

*Video courtesy of Hayden Memorial Library, Citrus College. NOTE: Northwest professors generally prefer the permanent URL or permalink in the citation.

In text/parenthetical

  • When There is no author in APA format, the title moves to the first position of the references entry.

Example:

All 33 Chile miners freed in flawless rescue. (2010, October 13). Retrieved from http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/39625809/ns/world_news-americas/  

  • To cite in text use the first few words of the reference list entry (usually the title) and the year. Use double quotation marks around the title or abbreviated title.

      IN TEXT

      ("All 33 Chile Miners," 2010).

One author:

  • In 2015, Mardis has noted that Web Usability Studies are commonly conducted in libraries (p. 5).
  • Mardis has noted that Web Usability Studies are commonly conducted in libraries (2015, p. 5).
  • Mardis (2015) has noted that Web Usability Studies are commonly conducted in libraries (p. 5).

Two authors:

  • Mardis and Johnson argue that libraries should adapt rapidly to change (2014, para. 5)

Three to five authors (cite all authors the first time the reference occurs; in subsequent citation(s), include the surname of the first author followed by et al.):

  • First citation:
    • Baudino, Mardis, and Johnson (2014) also highlight the importance of the issue (p. 5).
  • Subsequent citation(s):
    • Baudino et al. (2014) highlighted another important issue (p. 6).

Six or more authors (include the surname of the first author followed by et al.):

  • Apparently, Mardis et al. (2013) agree entirely with this point (para. 7).

If both authors have the same surname, include the first author's initials in all text citations, even if the year of publication differs (p. 176, section 6.14):

  • (J. Smith, 2005; T. A. Smith, 2008).

If both authors have the same surname and first initial, provide the authors' full name:

  • (Lori Mardis, 2015).

One author:

  • Web Usability Studies are commonly conducted in libraries (Mardis, 2014, p. 5).

Two authors (cite both author names in every reference):

  • Other authors also agreed that libraries should adapt rapidly to change (Mardis & Johnson, 2014, p. 6).

Three to five authors (cite all authors the first time the reference occurs; in subsequent citation(s), include the surname of the first author followed by et al.):

  • First citation:
    • This is an important issue highlighted by additional authors (Baudino, Johnson, & Mardis, 2013, para. 5).
  • Subsequent citation(s):
    • The other important issues were also highlighted (Baudino et al., 2013, para. 6).

Six or more authors (include the surname of the first author followed by et al.):

  • Apparently, other authors agree entirely with this point (Mardis et al., 2014, p. 8).

 

 

When multiple studies support an argument, include multiple citations inside the same set of parentheses.  Within the parentheses, alphabetize the studies as they appear in the reference list and separate with semicolons.  In running text, address studies in whatever order is wished. 

  • Fluency studies for third grade students have produced mixed results (Baudino & Wyatt, 2013, p. 3; Brady, 2010, para. 5; Mardis, Drew, & Johnson, 2012, p. 30).
  • Mardis, Drew, and Johnson (2012) reported an increase in fluency among third grade students, while Brady (2010) reported a decrease. Baudino and Wyatt (2013) found no significant differences in reading fluency. 
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Journals

REFERENCE (ONE AUTHOR)

(For more examples, see p. 198 of the 6th edition)

[ article with doi ]

 

IN TEXT 

(Robbins, 2015, p. 305).

REFERENCE (TWO AUTHORS)

Kowalski, R. M., & Limber, S. P. (2013). Psychological, physical, and academic correlates of cyberbullying and traditional bullying. Journal of Adolescent Health, 53(1), S13-S20. doi:10.1016/j.jadohealth.2012.09.018

 

IN TEXT 

(Kowalski & Limber, 2013, p. S14).

 

REFERENCE (THREE TO SEVEN AUTHORS)

Michikyan, M., Subrahmanyam, K., & Dennis, J. (2015). Facebook use and academic performance among college students: A mixed-methods study with a multi-ethnic sample. Computers in Human Behavior, 45, 265-272. doi:10.1016/j.chb.2014.12.033

 

IN TEXT 

First in text citation for 3-5 authors: (MichikyanSubrahmanyam, & Dennis, 2015, pp. 266-267).

 Subsequent in text citations for 3-5 authors: (Michikyan et al., 2015, p. 270).

 

REFERENCE (EIGHT OR MORE AUTHORS)

 (For more than seven authors, include the first six authors’ names, then insert an ellipses followed by the last author’s name; example on p. 198 of the 6th edition manual.)

Collings, P. J., Wijndaele, K., Corder, K., Westgate, K., Ridgway, C. L., Sharp, S. J., ... Ekelund, U. (2015). Prospective associations between sedentary time, sleep duration and adiposity in adolescents. Sleep Medicine,16(6), 717-722. doi:10.1016/j.chb.2014.12.033.

 

       IN TEXT 

        Six or more authors in text citation: (Collings et al., 2015, p. 717).

REFERENCE (ONE AUTHOR)

(For more examples, see p. 199 of the 6th edition)

[ APA Citing Example - Journal Article without DOI  ]

 

IN TEXT  

    (Poyrazli, 2015, pp. 307-308).

REFERENCE (TWO AUTHORS)

Das, B. M., & Evans, E. M. (2014). Understanding weight management perceptions in first-year college students using the Health Belief Model. Journal of American College Health, 62(7), 488-497. Retrieved from http://ezproxy.nwmissouri.edu:2048/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&AuthType=cookie,ip,uid&db=eue&AN=98307991&site=ehost-live&scope=site

 

IN TEXT 

(Das & Evans, 2014, p. 490).

 

REFERENCE (THREE TO SEVEN AUTHORS)

Vargas, P. A., Flores, M., & Robles, E. (2014). Sleep quality and body mass index in college students: The role of sleep disturbances. Journal of American College Health, 62(8), 534-541. Retrieved from http://ezproxy.nwmissouri.edu:2048/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&AuthType=cookie,ip,uid&db=s3h&AN=99282992&site=ehost-live&scope=site

 

IN TEXT 

First in text citation for 3-5 authors: (Vargas, Flores, & Robles, 2014, pp. 535-536).

Subsequent in text citations for 3-5 authors: (Vargas et al., 2014, p. 540).

 

REFERENCE (EIGHT OR MORE AUTHORS)

(For 8+ authors, include the first six authors’ names, then insert an ellipses followed by the last author’s name (example on page 198 of the 6th edition manual)

Concepcion, T., Barbosa, C., Velez, J. C., Pepper, M., Andrade, A., Gelaye, B., …Williams, M. A. (2014). Daytime sleepiness, poor sleep quality, eveningness chronotype, and common mental disorders among Chilean college students. Journal of American College Health, 62(7), 441-448. Retrieved from http://ezproxy.nwmissouri.edu:2048/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&AuthType=cookie,ip,uid&db=s3h&AN=98307985&site=ehost-live&scope=site

 

 IN TEXT 

 Six or more authors in text citation: (Concepcion et al., 2014, p. 441).

REFERENCE (ONE AUTHOR)

(For more examples, see p. 201 of the 6th edition)

[ APA Citing Example - Journal Article in Print ]

 

  IN TEXT  

    (Almazroui, 2015, p. 82).

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eBooks

REFERENCE (ONE AUTHOR)

(For more examples, see pp. 202 & 203 of the 6th edition)

[ Example ]

Ford, J. L. (2016). Programming for the absolute beginner. Retrieved from http://ezproxy.nwmissouri.edu:2048/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&AuthType=cookie,ip,uid&db=nlebk&AN=967770&site=ehost-live&scope=site

 

IN TEXT 

(Ford, 2016, p. 246).

 

REFERENCE (TWO AUTHORS):

Curry, J., & Milsom, A. (2014). Career counseling in P-12 schools. Retrieved from http://ezproxy.nwmissouri.edu:2048/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&AuthType=cookie,ip,uid&db=nlebk&AN=632458&site=ehost-live&scope=site

 

IN TEXT 

(Curry & Milsom, 2014, p. 79).

REFERENCE (TWO AUTHORS)

(For more examples, see pp. 202 & 203 of the 6th edition)

[ Example ]

Bellow, A., & Bauerlein, M. (Eds.). (2015). The state of the American mind: 16 leading critics on the new anti-intellectualism.  Retrieved from http://ezproxy.nwmissouri.edu:2048/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&AuthType=cookie,ip,uid&db=nlebk&AN=996646&site=ehost-live&scope=site  

 

IN TEXT 

(Bellow & Bauerlein, 2015, pp. 159-160).

REFERENCE (ONE  AUTHOR)

(For more examples, see p. 202 of the 6th edition)

[ Example ]

Mindich, D. T. Z. (2015). A wired nation tunes out the news. In A. Bellow & M. Bauerlein (Eds.), The state of the American mind: 16 leading critics on the new anti-intellectualism (pp. 97-109)Retrieved from http://ezproxy.nwmissouri.edu:2048/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&AuthType=cookie,ip,uid&db=nlebk&AN=996646&site=ehost-live&scope=site  

 

IN TEXT 

(Mindich, 2015, p. 99).

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Books

REFERENCE (TWO AUTHORS):

(For more examples, see pp. 202 & 203 of the 6th edition)

  [ APA print book citation example ]

 

   IN TEXT  

   (Author(s), year, page).

REFERENCE (ONE AUTHOR)

Fast, J. (2016). Beyond bullying: Breaking the cycle of shame, bullying, and violence. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.

 

IN TEXT 

(Fast, 2016, p. 16).

 

REFERENCE (TWO AUTHORS):

Goffee, R., & Jones, G. (2015). Why should anyone work here? What it takes to create an authentic organization. Boston, MA: Harvard Business Review Press.

 

IN TEXT 

(Goffee & Jones, 2015, pp. 27-29).

REFERENCE (THREE TO SEVEN AUTHORS)

(For more examples, see p. 202 in the 6th edition)

[ Example ]

Chang, E. C., Downey, C. A., Hirsch, J. K., & Lin, N. J. (Eds.). (2016). Positive psychology in racial and ethnic groups: Theory, research, and practice. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

 

IN TEXT 

First in text citation for 3-5 authors: (Chang, Downey, Hirsch, & Lin, 2016, pp. 28-42).

Subsequent in text citations for 3-5 authors: (Chang et al., 2016, p. 43).

REFERENCE (THREE AUTHORS):

(For more examples, see pp. 202 & 204 of the 6th edition)

     [ chapter in print book ]

 

     IN TEXT 
     (Author(s), year, page).

REFERENCE (THREE TO SEVEN AUTHORS)

Zhang, L., Wu, C., Li, Z., Guo, C., Chen, M., & Lau, F. C. M. (2016). Moving big data to the cloud: Online cost-minimizing algorithms. In S. X. Lin, J. Mišić, & X. S. Shen (Eds.), Networking for big data (pp.75-101). Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press. 

 

IN TEXT 

In text citation for six or more authors: (Zhang et al., 2016, p. 78). 

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Papers

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