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School and Community Relations (61-681): Citing

In text/parenthetical

One author:

  • Web Usability Studies are commonly conducted in libraries (Mardis, 2014).

Two authors (cite both author names in every reference):

  • Other authors also agreed that libraries should adapt rapidly to change (Mardis & Johnson, 2014).

Three or more authors (include the name of only the first author plus "et al." in every citation, including the first citation, unless ambiguity is created):

  • This is an important issue highlighted by additional authors (Baudino et al., 2020).

If ambiguity occurs when citation is shortened to first author, write as many names are needed to distinguish references and abbreviate the rest to "et al.":

  • (Mardis, Baudino, Sweet, et al., 2019). 
  • (Mardis, Baudino, Munson, et al., 2019). 

If both authors have the same surname, include the first author's initials in all text citations, even if the year of publication differs (p. 267, section 8.20):

  • (J. Smith & Taggert, 2018; T. A. Smith, 2016).

If both authors have the same surname and first initial, provide the authors' full name:

  • (Lori Mardis, 2015).

 

 

One author:

  • In 2015, Mardis has noted that Web Usability Studies are commonly conducted in libraries (p. 5).
  • Mardis has noted that Web Usability Studies are commonly conducted in libraries (2015, p. 5).
  • Mardis (2015) has noted that Web Usability Studies are commonly conducted in libraries (p. 5).

Two authors:

  • Mardis and Johnson argue that libraries should adapt rapidly to change (2014, para. 5)

 

Three or more authors (include the name of only the first author plus "et al." in every citation, including the first citation, unless ambiguity is created):

  • This is an important issue highlighted by Baudino et al. (2020).

If ambiguity occurs when citation is shortened to first author, write as many names are needed to distinguish references and abbreviate the rest to "et al.":

  • Mardis, Baudino, Sweet, et al. (2019) state that libraries should create learning commons. 
  • Mardis, Baudino, Munson, et al. (2019) provide examples of maker spaces incorporated into libraries. 
  • An abbreviation of a group author can sometimes be used in-text if the abbreviation is well-known, will avoid repetition, or will appear 3+ times in a paper.
    • Provide the full name the first time the group author is referenced
      • The Modern Language Association (MLA, 2019) states . . . 
      • (Modern Language Association [MLA], 2019)
  • Do not abbreviate group author name in the reference list
  • When there is no author, the title moves to the first position of the references entry.
  • Long titles can be shortened for in-text citations.
  • If the title of the work is italicized in the reference, also italicize the title in the in-text citation. If it is not italicized in the reference list, surround the title in double quotation marks within the in-text citation.  Capitalize the titles in the text using title case (sentence case in reference list).  
    • Book with no author: (Management by Proxy, 2019).
    • Magazine article with no author: ("Diabetes and You," 2020).

Example:

All 33 Chile miners freed in flawless rescue. (2010, October 13). Retrieved from http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/39625809/ns/world_news-americas/  

  • To cite in text use the first few words of the reference list entry (usually the title) and the year. Use double quotation marks around the title or abbreviated title.

      IN TEXT

      ("All 33 Chile Miners," 2010).

When citing a specific part of a source, list the author, date, plus information for the specific part (pages, paragraphs, sections, tables, figures, footnotes, webpage, time stamps, slide numbers).  

For example:

  • (Council on Environmental Quality, 2019, p. 5).
  • (Johnson, 2017, pp. 5-18). 
  • (Mardis, 2018, Chapter 5).
  • (Duncan, 2020, Slide 8).
  • (Young, 2017, Table 3).
  • (Howel, 2020, paras. 3-4).

When multiple studies are relevant to your argument, place the citations in alphabetical order and separate with semicolons within parentheses. In running text, address studies in whatever order is wished. 

  • Fluency studies for third grade students have produced mixed results (Baudino & Wyatt, 2013; Brady, 2010; Mardis, Drew, & Johnson, 2012).
  • Mardis, Drew, and Johnson (2012) reported an increase in fluency among third grade students, while Brady (2010) reported a decrease. Baudino and Wyatt (2013) found no significant differences in reading fluency. 

Arrange two or more works by the same authors in chronological order (place citations with no dates first) with the authors' surnames listed once.

  • (Department of Motor Vehicles, n.d., 2016a, 2016b, 2018).

To signify the source(s) that are most relevant to your point, place those citations first within parentheses listed alphabetically and then insert a semicolon and a phrase (i.e., "see also") before the remaining citations that are listed in alphabetical order.  This highlights for the reader the most recent and/or important research on the topic.  

  • (Mardis & Drew, 2020; see also Albright, 2017; Johnson et al., 2018; Zork, 2016).

Journals

NOTE: To standardize citations, all DOIs need to be proceeded by https://doi.org/ before the DOI number

REFERENCE (ONE AUTHOR)

(For more examples, see p. 317 of the 7th edition)

[ APA Citing Example - Journal article with DOI ]

 

IN TEXT 

Parenthetical: (Robbins, 2015).

Narrative: Robins (2015)

REFERENCE (TWO AUTHORS)

Kowalski, R. M., & Limber, S. P. (2013). Psychological, physical, and academic correlates of cyberbullying and traditional bullying. Journal of Adolescent Health, 53(1), S13-S20. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jadohealth.2012
09.018

IN TEXT 

Parenthetical citation: (Kowalski & Limber, 2013).

Narrative citation: Kowalski and Limber (2013)

REFERENCE (21 or more authors)

Acconcia, T. V., Agocs, A. G., Barile, F., Barnafoldi, G. G., Bellwied, R., Bencedi, G., Bencze, G., Berenyi, D., Boldizsar, L., Chattopadhyay, S., Cindolo, F., Cossyleon, K., Chinellato, D. D., D'Ambrosio, S., Das, D., Das, K., Das-Bose, L., Dash, A. K., De Cataldo, G., . . . Yoo, I.;-K. (2014). A very high momentum particle identification detector. The European Physical Journal Plus, 129(5), 91- . https://doi.org/10.1140/epjp/i2014-14091-5

IN TEXT (3 or more authors)

Parenthetical citation: (Acconcia et al., 2014).

Narrative citation: Acconcia et al. (2013) 

REFERENCE (ONE AUTHOR)

(For more examples, see p. 317 of the 7th edition)

[ APA Citing Example - Journal article without DOI from a database or print version ]

 

  IN TEXT  

    Parenthetical citation: (Almazroui, 2015).
    Narrative citation: Almazroui (2015)

 

(For more examples, see p. 317 of the 7th edition)

REFERENCE (ONE AUTHOR)

[ APA Citing Example - Journal article without DOI, with a nondatabase URL  ]

IN TEXT  

    Parenthetical citation: (Stamps, 2019).
    Narrative citation: Stamps (2019)

 

REFERENCE (TWO AUTHORS)

[ APA Citing Example - Journal article without DOI, with a nondatabase URL  ]

 

IN TEXT  

    Parenthetical citation: (Akin & Huang, 2019).
    Narrative citation: Akin and Huang (2019)

REFERENCE (TWO AUTHORS)

Napoli, P. M., & Napoli, A. B. (2019). What social media platforms can learn from audience measurement: Lessons in the self-regulation of "black boxes". First Monday, 24(12), 488-497. https://journals.uic.edu/ojs/index.php/fm/
article/view/10124/8288

IN TEXT 

Parenthetical citation: (Napoli & Napoli, 2019).

Narrative citation: Napoli and Napoli (2019)

ERIC Document from ERIC Database

REFERENCE (ONE AUTHOR)

   [ Citing Example for ERIC ]

IN TEXT  

   (Mukai, 2000).

Books and eBooks without DOIs from academic research databases

REFERENCE (TWO AUTHORS):

(For more examples, see pp. 321-328 of the 7th edition)

  [ APA print book citation example ]

   IN TEXT  

   Parenthetical citation: (Moss & Loh-Hagan, 2016).

   Narrative citation: Moss and Loh-Hagan (2016)

REFERENCE (ONE AUTHOR)

Fast, J. (2016). Beyond bullying: Breaking the cycle of shame, bullying, and violence. Oxford University Press.

   IN TEXT  

Parenthetical citation: (Fast, 2016).

Narrative citation: Fast (2016)

 

REFERENCE (TWO AUTHORS):

Goffee, R., & Jones, G. (2015). Why should anyone work here? What it takes to create an authentic organization. Harvard Business Review Press.

   IN TEXT  

Parenthetical citation: (Goffee & Jones, 2015).

Narrative citation: Goffee and Jones (2015)

REFERENCE (THREE TO SEVEN AUTHORS)

(For more examples, see pp. 321-328 of the 7th edition)

[ Edited book ]

 

IN TEXT 

Parenthetical citation: (Chang, et al., 2016).

Narrative citation: Chang, et al. (2016).

REFERENCE (THREE AUTHORS):

(For more examples, see pp. 321-328 of the 7th edition)

     [ APA Chapter in edited book without DOI or print version ]

 

     IN TEXT 
     Parenthetical citation: (Yoder et al., 2016).

     Narrative citation: Yoder et al. (2016)

REFERENCE (ONE AUTHOR)

(For more examples, see pp. 321-331 of the 7th edition)

[ APA book with a DOI ]

IN TEXT 

Parenthetical: (Prevatt & Levrini, 2015).

Narrative citation: Prevatt and Levrini (2015)

 

Web pages

REFERENCE (ONE AUTHOR)

(For more examples, see p. 350-352 of the 7th edition)
*Please note: If multiple webpages from a website are cited, create a reference for each.  If mentioning a website in general, do not create a reference list entry or in-text citation. Instead, include the name of the website in text and provide the URL in parentheses).

If the author's name and the website's name are the same, omit the website's name from the reference.

[ APA Webpage ]

 

     IN TEXT 

Parenthetical citation: (Buterbaugh, 2016).

Narrative citation: Buterbaugh (2016)

REFERENCE (FIVE AUTHORS)

Annetta, L. A., Murray, M. R., Laird, S. G., Bohr, S. C., & Park, J. C. (2006, January 1). Serious games: Incorporating video games in the classroom. EDUCAUSE. http://er.educause.edu/articles/2006/1/serious-games-incorporating-video-games-in-the-classroom

IN TEXT 

Parenthetical citation: (Annetta et al., 2006).

Narrative citation: Annetta et al. (2006)

REFERENCE (ONE AUTHOR)

(For more examples, see p. 351 of the 7th edition)
*Please note: If multiple webpages from a website are cited, create a reference for each.  If mentioning a website in general, do not create a reference list entry or in-text citation. Instead, include the name of the website in text and provide the URL in parentheses).

[ APA webpage with a group author ]

 

     IN TEXT 

Parenthetical citation: (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2019).

Narrative citation: Centers for Disease COntrol and Prevention (2019)

REFERENCE (NO AUTHOR)

[ APA webpage with no author ]

 

      IN TEXT 

Parenthetical citation: ("Helping the Student," 2015).

Narrative citation: "Helping the Student" (2015)

REFERENCE (NO AUTHOR AND NO DATE)

Anxiety disorder symptoms, causes and effects. (n.d.). PsychGuides. http://www.psychguides.com/guides/anxiety-disorder-symptoms-causes-and-effects

 

IN TEXT 

Parenthetical citation: ("Anxiety disorder symptoms," n.d.).

Narrative citation: "Anxiety disorder symptoms" (n.d.)

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