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General Zoology Lab (04-115)

Primary literature

A primary research article presents original scientific information that includes:
1) Abstract, Introduction, and Review of literature:
Summary, research question, and previous publications that provide the scientific context of the study
2) Materials and Methods/Methodology: includes exact materials and techniques used so the study can be evaluated (or replicated, if needed)
3) Findings: essential data are represented by statistics, graphs, or tables
4) Discussion: narrative about the data
5) Conclusion: recommendations for future studies

Secondary literature

Annotates and summarizes the primary literature. It is often less current and specialized.
     monographs (textbooks and books)

     review articles (for instance: Attention, noise, and implications for wildlife conservation and management)

     popular science magazines

Review articles cite other research studies throughout the entire article:‚Äč

[ paragraph from review article ]

Tertiary literature

Broad, topical information useful for background information, understanding and finding key search terms, such as species names.

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