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Citation FAQ: Home

Frequently asked questions about APA, CSE, MLA, and Turabian citation styles

General formatting questions

When is a citation necessary?

  • Any time you:
    • paraphrase (or summarize) ideas and/or information from a source
    • quote (verbatim) from a source
    • use facts found in a source
    • introduce information that is not considered "common knowledge"
  • Additional information is available through Yale University's Poorvu Center for Teaching and Learning

What do I call the page(s) with all of my resources listed in alphabetical order?

  • APA - References
  • CSE - References
  • MLA - Works Cited
  • Turabian - Bibliography (for notes-bibliography style); References (for author-date style)

Should my citations be single or double spaced?

  • APA - double spaced
  • CSE - single spaced with double space in between each citation
  • MLA - double spaced
  • Turabian - single spaced with double space in between each citation

How should I indent resources in my works cited/bibliography/references? (highlight resource citation + Ctrl T for easy hanging indent)

  • APA - Hanging indent, double spaced
  • CSE - Hanging indent, single spaced
  • MLA - Hanging indent, double spaced
  • Turabian - Hanging indent, single spaced

What is a DOI and when should I use it?

DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier, which is a series of letters and numbers that leads to an item's location. Articles in online journals are frequently assigned a DOI, which makes it easy to locate the article even if the URL changes. If an article includes a DOI, use that instead of the URL.

Should I include titles like Dr. or PhD to an author's name?

  • APA - No
  • CSE - No
  • MLA - No
  • Turabian - No

How do I format names with particles like de, le, von, etc. in my works cited/references/bibliography?

  • APA - retain author's original capitalization and alphabetize by particle
  • CSE - treat particles as part of the surname and retain author's original capitalization
  • MLA - retain author's original capitalization and alphabetize by particle
  • Turabian - retain author's original capitalization and alphabetize by particle (if considered part of the surname by original language)

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