When is a citation necessary?
- Any time you:
- paraphrase (or summarize) ideas and/or information from a source
- quote (verbatim) from a source
- use facts found in a source
- introduce information that is not considered "common knowledge"
- Additional information is available through Yale University's Poorvu Center for Teaching and Learning
What do I call the page(s) with all of my resources listed in alphabetical order?
- APA - References
- CSE - References
- MLA - Works Cited
- Turabian - Bibliography (for notes-bibliography style); References (for author-date style)
Should my citations be single or double spaced?
- APA - double spaced
- CSE - single spaced with double space in between each citation
- MLA - double spaced
- Turabian - single spaced with double space in between each citation
How should I indent resources in my works cited/bibliography/references? (highlight resource citation + Ctrl T for easy hanging indent)
- APA - Hanging indent, double spaced
- CSE - Hanging indent, single spaced
- MLA - Hanging indent, double spaced
- Turabian - Hanging indent, single spaced
What is a DOI and when should I use it?
DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier, which is a series of letters and numbers that leads to an item's location. Articles in online journals are frequently assigned a DOI, which makes it easy to locate the article even if the URL changes. If an article includes a DOI, use that instead of the URL.
Should I include titles like Dr. or PhD to an author's name?
- APA - No
- CSE - No
- MLA - No
- Turabian - No
How do I format names with particles like de, le, von, etc. in my works cited/references/bibliography?
- APA - retain author's original capitalization and alphabetize by particle
- CSE - treat particles as part of the surname and retain author's original capitalization
- MLA - retain author's original capitalization and alphabetize by particle
- Turabian - retain author's original capitalization and alphabetize by particle (if considered part of the surname by original language)