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Citation FAQ: Turabian

Frequently asked questions about APA, CSE, MLA, and Turabian citation styles

Turabian Formatting

Do I capitalize the first letter of all of the words in the title in my citation?
Capitalize the first letter of the first and last words of the title and subtitle and all major words (proper nouns, pronouns, verbs, adverbs, and adjectives). Coordinating conjunctions like and, or, for, of, the do not need to be capitalized unless it is the first word in the title.

How do I format block quotes?
If you choose to use a quote that is five lines or longer, you will need to format it as a block quote. Block quotes should be single spaced, with a blank line above and below the quote. No quotations are needed around the quote, and the entire quote should be indented one inch from the left margin.

Is there a difference between footnotes and end notes?
The only difference between footnotes and end notes is where they appear in a paper. Footnotes should appear (in numerical order) in the footer section of paper pages, while end notes should be placed as a complete, running list at the end of the paper. Both use the same formatting, and examples can be found under "notes" in each section of the Turabian guide.

What font should I use?
In general, unless otherwise specified by your instructor, 12 pt Times New Roman is the preferred font for papers. Notes should be typed in 10 pt font.

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