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- Omit degrees, titles, and honors that may precede or follow a personal name (example: MD, Colonel, Sir).
- Place family designations of rank after the initials, without punctuation (convert roman numerals to Arabic ordinals).
- EXAMPLE: John G. Smith Jr. becomes Smith JG Jr
- EXAMPLE: Neil J Mardis II becomes Mardis NJ 2nd
- Enter given names and middle names containing a prefix, a preposition, or other particle by the first letter only.
- EXAMPLE: D'Arcy Smith becomes Smith D
- EXAMPLE: De la Vries Dupont becomes Dupont D.
- Disregard hyphens or en dashes joining given names.
- EXAMPLE: John-Paul Lamartine becomes Lamartine JP.
Two to Ten Authors
Eleven or More Authors
Last name, Initial letters of the given (first) name and middle name.
List all authors (including the 10th author) in the order in which they appear in the original text.
List the first ten authors followed by “et al.”
If a work has no personal or organizational author but has an editor or translator, place the editor(s) or translator(s) in the author position of the reference. Separate multiple secondary authors by commas; separate secondary authors occupying different roles by semicolons. List in order of appearance within the publication.
Mardis LM, Johnson CJ, Meldrem JP, Baudino F, Ury C, Verbick T, Todd K, Drew ME, Washington KM, Smith JJ.
Mardis LM, Johnson CJ, Meldrem JP, Baudino F, Ury CJ, Verbick T, Todd K, Drew ME, O’Brian KM, Smith JJ, et al.
Mardis LM, Johnson C, editors.
Mardis LM, translator and editor.
Mardis LM, editor; Johnson C, translator.
For more information, see section 220.127.116.11, page 566-571 of Scientific Style and Format.
Begin the in-text reference with the first word or first few words of the title, followed by an ellipsis.
Use only as many words of the title as needed to distinguish from other titles.
In-Text Reference Example:
- The pivital report on the effects of cigarette smoking on lungs (Handbook. . .1988) was. . .
End Reference Example:
- Handbook of cancer treatments. 1988. Springhouse (PA): Springhouse.
For more information, see section 18.104.22.168.6 of Scientific Style and Format.
Possible Organizations Used as Authors: university, corprporation, government body, etc.
- Drop "The" in an organizational name ("American Chemical Society" not "The American Chemical Society").
- Give the parts of the name in descending hierarchical order, separated by commas. The highest position used should be the one most likely known by readers.
- EXAMPLE: National Cancer Institute (NCI) is under the National Institutes of Health which is under Department of Health and Human Services. NCI is well known so this would be listed as National Cancer Institute, Department of Health and Human Services.
- EXAMPLE: The Safe Practices Subcommittee of The American Chemical Society's Chemical Safety Committee becomes American Chemical Society, Chemical Safety Committee, Safe Practices subcommittee.
- When an acronym has been used for an organization as the in-text reference, order the reference by the full name, not the acronym:
- [ACS] American Chemical Scoiety
- [ABU] Australian Biochemical Union
For more information, see section 22.214.171.124.2, page 507 of Scientific Style and Format (linked to in the box to the right).
- Sequence in order of publication - earliest to latest.
- EXAMPLE: article published in January 2014 would be designated 2014a and one published in March 2014 would be designated 2014b.
- If the sequence can't be determined, place in alphabetic order by article title.
References List Example (order by publication date):
- Mardis LA. 2013a. Effects of temperature on corn hardiness. Crop Pasture Sci. 38(2):178-189.
- Mardis LA. 2013b. Effects of precipitation on corn hardiness. J Agric Res. 37(1): 38-48.
In Text Example (order by publication date in the same parentheses):
- Drought and cold weather effect the harvesting of corn (Mardis 2013a, 2013b) by. . .
For more information, see section 126.96.36.199.2 of Scientific Style and Format (linked to in the box to the right).
CSE Scientific style guide