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Scientific Style (CSE) Citation Examples: In text

Find how to cite articles, books (+ chapters, textbooks, lab manuals) magazines/newspapers, videos, conference papers, web pages, in text parentheticals, & author names. Single-space citations with a hanging indent (ctrl+t). Double-space between entries.


One author: (Smith 2018)

Two authors: authors’ last names are separated by “and” followed by the year.

EXAMPLE: (Rieseberg and Soltis 1991)

Three or more authors: list only the first author’s last name, followed by “et al.” and the year.

EXAMPLE: (Tsutsui et al. 2009)

If different authors have the same surname (last name), add their initials

. . .but later studies (Mardis KL and Mardis LA 2012) established that. . .

  • Cite sources as close as possible to the information they support.
  • Put an in-text citation for an entire sentence right before the period.

Using multiple in-text references at the same point

Provide in chronologic sequence from earliest to latest, separated by semicolons - sequence by month those published in same year or, if this information isn't available, alphabetically by author names

. . .the main proponents (Mardis and Johnson 1972; Mardis and Wyatt 1972; Baudino F 1978; Baudino K 1978; Park et al. 1980; Ury et al. 1981; Zupa 1985) concluded that. . .

Example in a ScienceDirect article:

[ example ]

Multiple works by the same author(s) in different years

Jackson's studies of the AIDS virus (1985, 1986) have shown that. . .

Organization as author: (American Dietetic Association 2016)

No author? 

(Human Biology . . . 2002-2016). Use date range if website lists a range of dates rather than a single year.

(Organizations . . . 2016).

For the in-text reference, include only the first word or two of the title (enough to distinguish it from other titles in the reference list), followed by an ellipsis and the date. 
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